Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
In Cambodia the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends,1those of the young women, but also a matchmaker. A young man can 2 a likely spouse on his own and them ask his parents to 3 the marriage negotiations. or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. 4 , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. 5 a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying 6 a good family.
The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days 7 by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and 8 prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, 9 cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists ,and 10 a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the 11 .Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may 12 with them up to a year, 13 they can build a flew house nearby.
Divorce is legal and easy to 14 ,but not common .Divorced persons are 15 with some disapproval. Each spouse retains 16 property he or she 17 into the marriage, and jointly –acquired property is 18 equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice 19 up .The divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry 20 the woman must wait the months.
1. [A] by way of [B] as well as [C] on behalf of [D] with regard to
2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C]compete with [D] decide on
3. [A] close [B] renew [C]arrange [D] postpone
4. [A] In theory [B] Above all [C] In time [D] For example
5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless
6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through
7. [A] sine [B] or [C] but [D] so
8. [A] test [B]copy [C]recite [D] create
9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying
10. [A] lighting [B] passing [C] hiding [D] serving
11. [A] meeting [B] association [C] collection [D]union
12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal [D]live
13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] for [D] if
14. [A] obtain [B] follow [C] challenge [D]avoid
15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed
16. [A]wherever [B] however [C] whenever [D]whatever
17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped [D] pushed
18. [A] divided [B] invested [C] donated [D] withdrawn
19. [A]clears [B] warms [C] shows [D] breaks
20. [A]while [B] so what [C]once [D] in that
Section II Reading Comprehension
参考答案：ADBCA ADCDD ACDBA DABCD BGDEF
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for woman. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.
The parliament also agreed to ban websites that” incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.
Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up with impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starring themselves to health –as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it move take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape –measure they must use to determine their individual worth.
The bans, if fully enforced ,would suggest to woman (and many men )that they should not let others be orbiters of their beauty .And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to sine zero or wasp-waist physiques .
The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mess could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.
The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standard for models and fashion images there rely more on pear pressure for enforcement.
In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding age, health, and other characteristics of models .The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical charter clearly states, we are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people. The charter’s main toll of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen. Fashion week, which is men by the Danish Fashion Institute .But in general it relies on a name-and –shame method of compliance.
Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.
21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?
[A] Physical beauty would be redefined
[B] New runways would be constructed
[C] Websites about dieting would thrive
[D] The fashion industry would decline
22. The phrase “impinging on”(Line2 Para2) is closest in meaning to
[A] heightening the value of
[B] indicating the state of
[C] losing faith in
[D] doing harm to
23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry
[A] The French measures have already failed
[B] New standards are being set in Denmark
[C] Models are no longer under peer pressure
[D] Its inherent problems are getting worse
24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for
[A] setting perfect physical conditions
[B] caring too much about models’ character
[C] showing little concern for health factors
[D] pursuing a high age threshold for models
25. Which of the following maybe the best title of the text?
[A] A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
[B] A Dilemma for the starving models in France
[C] Just Another Round of struggle for beauty
[D] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry
For the first time in the history more people live in towns than in the country. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal family. Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what make them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.
A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever”. It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air”. Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it .It needs constant guardianship.
At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The Conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation,
even authorizing “off–plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent only u sensing its chance, has sides with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its campaign to protect Rural England struck terror into many local conservative parties.
The sensible place to build new houses factories and offices is where people are in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyed recently identified enough sites for half of million houses in the Landon area alone with no intrusion on green belts. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces. The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more houses but, as always, where to put them under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have grown and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?
Development should be planned, not let trip, After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowed country. Half a century of town and country planning has enable it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. There is no doubt of the alternative-the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal, Spain or Ireland. Avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite the left and right of the political spectrum.
26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside
[A] is not well reflected in politics
[B] is fully backed by the royal family
[C] didn’t start fill the Shakespearean age
[D] has brought much benefit to the NHS
27. According to paragraph 2，the achievements of the National Trust are now being
[A] largely overshadowed
[B] properly protected
[C] effectively reinforced
[D] gradually destroyed
28. Which of the following can be offered from paragraph 3
[A] Labour is under attack for opposing development
[B] The Conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building
[C] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation
[D] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence
29. The author holds that George Osbornes’s preference
[A] shows his disregard for the character of rural area
[B] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis
[C] highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure
[D] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas
30. In the last paragraph the author show his appreciation of
[A] the size of population in Britain
[B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain
[C] the town-and-country planning in Britain
[D] the political life in today’s Britain
“There is one and only one social responsibility of business” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel Prize-winning economist “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Friedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility(CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’s money, things may not be absolutely clear-act. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.
The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect may to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.
Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under American’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act(FCPA).It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations，they could be influenced only by the halo effect.
The study found that，among prosecuted firms，those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm’s political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.
In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving by about20% result in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials.” says one researcher.
Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question at how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.
31. The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with
32. According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company by
[A]guarding it against malpractices
[B]protecting it from consumers
[C]winning trust from consumers.
[D]raising the quality of its products
33. The expression “more lenient”(line 2,Para.4)is closest in meaning to
34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR record
[A]comes across as reliable evidence
[B]has an impact on their decision
[C]increases the chance of being penalized
[D]constitutes part of the investigation
35. Which of the following is true of CSR according to the last paragraph?
[A] The necessary amount of companies spending on it is unknown
[B] Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated
[C] Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked
[D]It has brought much benefit to the banking industry
There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. ”Sometime in the future,” the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.
Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper – printing presses, delivery trucks – isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online – only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print anyway. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.
Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Jonah Peretti.
Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way. “Figuring out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense for them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”
Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example of Netflix discontinuing its DVD-mailing service to focus on streaming. “It was seen as blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti were in charge at the Times? ”I wouldn’t pick a year to end print,” he said “I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”
The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you’re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,” Peretti said. “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.” In other words, if you’re going to make a print product, make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which may be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs nearly $500 a year – more than twice as much as a digital – only subscription.
“It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,” Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive that less aggressive.”
36. The New York Times is considering ending it’s print edition partly due to
[A] the increasing online and sales
[B] the pressure from its investors
[C] the complaints from its readers
[D] the high cost of operation
37. Peretti suggests that in face of the present situation, The Times should
[A] make strategic adjustments
[B] end the print sedition for good
[C] seek new sources of leadership
[D] aim for efficient management
38. It can be inferred from paragraphs 5and 6 that a ” legacy product”
[A] helps restore the glory of former times
[B] is meant for the most loyal customers
[C] will have the cost of printing reduced
[D] expands the popularity of the paper
39. Peretti believes that in a changing world
[A] traditional luxuries can stay unaffected
[B] cautiousness facilitates problem-solving
[C] aggressiveness better meets challenges
[D] legacy businesses are becoming out dated
40. which of the following would be the best title of the text?
[A] shift to online newspapers all at once
[B] Cherish the Newspapers still in Your Hand
[C] keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion
[D] Make Your print Newspapers a luxury Good
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings. Mark your answers on the ANSER SHEET. (10 point)
[A] Create a new image of yourself
[B] Decide if the time is right
[C] Have confidence in yourself
[D]Understand the context
[E]Work with professionals
[F]Make it efficient
[G]Know your goals
No matter how formal or informal the work environment, the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in the first impressions. According to research from Princeton University , people assess your competence, trustworthiness, and likeability in just a tenth of a second, solely based on the way you look.
The difference between today’s workplace and the “dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in other not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.
So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one than enhances our goals? Here are some tips:
41___[B] Decide if the time is right
As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particular helpful during transitions-when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you. Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK
42_____[G]Know your goals
Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more “SoHo.” (It’s OK to use characterizations like that )
43 ____[D]Understand the context
Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What conveys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.
44 _____[E]Work with professionals
Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J. Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.
45 ______[F]Make it efficient
The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time fussing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes at once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Mental health is our birthright. (46) we don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy, it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend, a broken bone. Mental health can’t be learned, only reawakened. It is like immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When we don’t understand the value of mental health and we don’t know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) Our mental health doesn’t go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem –confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our lives-the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. It’s a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for solving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful, managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for ourselves. And toward others as well as patience while driving, catching a fish, working on our car, or raising a child. It allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature, in culture, in the flow of our daily lives.
(49)Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfecting ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions. It has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong, good from bad, friend from foe. Mental health has commonly been called conscience, instinct, wisdom, common sense, or the inner voice, we think of it simply as a health and helpful flow of intelligent thought. (50) As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
Section III Writing
Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words. Providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the notice. Use Li Ming instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
For better serving the international students, a notice is released here to provide the necessary information about the library.
The university library opens at 8 a.m. and closes at 10 p.m. from Monday to Friday, but from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekends. If you need to borrow books, please follow the following steps. First, bring your student card and register first at the librarian’s office. At most six books can be borrowed once from the library. You should keep in mind the days that you can keep the book(s) you borrow. Three months is the longest period. If you exceed the limited time, some fines should be paid.
If you have any questions or suggestions about borrowing or returning books, telephone 010-8248119 or send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. We sincerely hope you all enjoy the study and life in our university.
December 26, 2015
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures In your essay, you should
1) describe the pictures briefly
2) interpret the meaning , and
3) give your comments
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points)
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
The above two pictures reveal two father’s different teaching methods. In the first picture, the father is urging his son to study hard while he is smoking and watching TV idly. In the second picture, the father and his son are both concentrating on the study. The caption under the cartoon reads: “It is better to set an example than to make demands”.
Apparently, the author of the cartoon focuses on a fact that many parents when educating their children tend to neglect the impact of their own acts upon their children. It is without any doubt that all parents hope that their children could have a bright future. Therefore, they tend to count on schools and the society to provide their kids with a good education. However, what they don’t realize is that parents are the first teachers of children. Parents failing to set a role model for their children will only result in an unhealthy family atmosphere, which is definitely harmful to the future development of their children.
From my perspective, education from parents is of vital importance to a child’s healthy growth. Therefore, parents should provide their children with a favorable growing environment by being a positive role model. Only through persistent efforts and proper guidance can children enjoy a bright future.
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They're more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence 1 firms work, too.
Companies located in place with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper. 2 , firms in happy places spend more on R&D(research and development).That's because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investment for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the 4 and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would 5 the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities' average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
7 enough, firms' investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8. But it is really happiness that's linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researches controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest like size, industry , and sales-and-and for indicators that a place was 11 to live in, like growth in wages or population. They link between happiness and investment generally 12 even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors 13 to "less confined decision making process" and the possible presence of younger and less 14 managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.'' The relationship was 15 stronger in places where happiness was spread more 16. Firms seem to invest more in places.
17 this doesn't prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least 18 at that possibility. It's not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help 19 how executives think about the future. It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward -thinking and creative and 20 R&D more than the average," said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] sure [B] odd [C] unfortunate [D] often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C] emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D] compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D] experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share
20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send act
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It's true that high-school coding classes aren't essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon's School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it's not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers - but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It's not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that's become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but "we try to gear lessons toward things they're interested in," said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won't drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the "Ruby on Rails" language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn - how to think logically through a problem and organize the results - apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers-in their pockets ,in their offices, in their homes -for the rest of their lives, The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want -the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that -the better.
21.Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to _______
[A] complete future job training
[B] remodel the way of thinking
[C] formulate logical hypotheses
[D] perfect artwork production
22.In delivering lessons for high - schoolers , Flatiron has considered their________
[C] career prospects
[D] academic backgrounds
23.Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will ________
[A] help students learn other computer languages
[B] have to be upgraded when new technologies come
[C] need improving when students look for jobs
[D] enable students to make big quick money
24.According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to ______
[A] bring forth innovative computer technologies
[B] stay longer in the information technology industry
[C] become better prepared for the digitalized world
[D] compete with a future army of programmers
25.The word "coax"(Line4,Para.6) is closest in meaning to ________
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands-once lent red to the often grey landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species 'historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened ."The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation ," said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as "endangered," a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats .But Ashe and others argued that the" threatened" tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action. and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken's habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range-wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat .The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat , USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years .And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let "states" remain in the driver 's seat for managing the species," Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric. Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court. Not surprisingly, doesn't go far enough. "The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction, " says biologist Jay Lininger.
26.The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____.
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The "threatened" tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____.
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____.
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe, the leading role in managing the species in______.
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______.
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
That everyone's too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully: There's never any time to read.
What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don't seem sufficient. The web's full of articles offering tips on making time to read: "Give up TV" or "Carry a book with you at all times." But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn't work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you're so exhausted that a challenging book's the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, "is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption." Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can't be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
In fact, "becoming more efficient" is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you'll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. "The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt," writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and "we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them." No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You'd think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us "step outside time's flow" into "soul time." You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. "Carry a book with you at all times" can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you're "making time to read," but just reading, and making time for everything else.
31. The usual time-management techniques don't work because .
[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
32. The "empty bottles" metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to .
[A] update their to-do lists
[B] make passing time fulfilling
[C] carry their plans through
[D] pursue carefree reading
33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps .
[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set
[B] develop online reading habits
[C] promote ritualistic reading
[D] achieve immersive reading
34. "Carry a book with you at all times" can work if .
[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with
[C] you are able to drop back to business after reading
[D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
35. The best title for this text could be .
[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading
[B] How to Find Time to Read
[C] How to Set Reading Goals
[D] How to Read Extensively
Against a backdrop of drastic changes in economy and population structure, younger Americans are drawing a new 21st-century road map to success, a latest poll has found.
Across generational lines, Americans continue to prize many of the same traditional milestones of a successful life, including getting married, having children, owning a home, and retiring in their sixties. But while young and old mostly agree on what constitutes the finish line of a fulfilling life, they offer strikingly different paths for reaching it.
Young people who are still getting started in life were more likely than older adults to prioritize personal fulfillment in their work, to believe they will advance their careers most by regularly changing jobs, to favor communities with more public services and a faster pace of life, to agree that couples should be financially secure before getting married or having children, and to maintain that children are best served by two parents working outside the home, the survey found.
From career to community and family, these contrasts suggest that in the aftermath of the searing Great Recession, those just starting out in life are defining priorities and expectations that will increasingly spread through virtually all aspects of American life, from consumer preferences to housing patterns to politics.
Young and old converge on one key point: Overwhelming majorities of both groups said they believe it is harder for young people today to get started in life than it was for earlier generations. Whlie younger people are somewhat more optimistic than their elders about the prospects for those starting out today, big majorities in both groups believe those "just getting started in life" face a tougher a good-paying job, starting a family, managing debt, and finding affordable housing.
Pete Schneider considers the climb tougher today. Schneider, a 27-yaear-old auto technician from the Chicago suburbs says he struggled to find a job after graduating from college. Even now that he is working steadily, he said." I can't afford to pay ma monthly mortgage payments on my own, so I have to rent rooms out to people to mark that happen." Looking back, he is struck that his parents could provide a comfortable life for their children even though neither had completed college when he was young."I still grew up in an upper middle-class home with parents who didn't have college degrees,"Schneider said."I don't think people are capable of that anymore. "
36. One cross-generation mark of a successful life is .
[A] trying out different lifestyles
[B] having a family with children
[C] working beyond retirement age
[D] setting up a profitable business
37. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that young people tend to .
[A] favor a slower life pace
[B] hold an occupation longer
[C] attach importance to pre-marital finance
[D] give priority to childcare outside the home
38. The priorities and expectations defined by the young will .
[A] become increasingly clear
[B] focus on materialistic issues
[C] depend largely on political preferences
[D] reach almost all aspects of American life
39. Both young and old agree that .
[A] good-paying jobs are less available
[B] the old made more life achievements
[C] housing loans today are easy to obtain
[D] getting established is harder for the young
40. Which of the following is true about Schneider?
[A] He found a dream job after graduating from college
[B] His parents believe working steadily is a must for success
[C] His parents' good life has little to do with a college degree
[D] He thinks his job as a technician quite challenging
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A] Be silly
[B] Have fun
[C] Ask for help
[D] Express your emotions.
[E] Don't overthink it
[F] Be easily pleased
[G] Notice things
Act Your Shoe Size, Not Your Age.
(1) As adults, it seems that we're constantly pursuing happiness, often with mixed results. Yet children appear to have it down to an art-and for the most part they don't need self-help books or therapy. Instead, they look after their wellbeing instinctively and usually more effectively than we do as grownups. Perhaps it's time to learn a few lessons from them.
41_____ [D] Express your emotions
(2) What does a child do when he's sad? He cries. When he's angry? He shouts. Scared? Probably a bit of both. As we grow up, we learn to control our emotions so they are manageable and don't dictate our behaviours, which is in many ways a good thing. But too often we take this process too far and end up suppressing emotions, especially negative ones. That's about as effective as brushing dirt under a carpet and can even make us ill. What we feel appropriately and then-again, like children-move on.
42______[F] Be easily pleased
A couple of Christmases ago, my youngest stepdaughter, who was 9 years old at the time, got a Superman T-shirt for Christmas. It cost less than a fiver but she was overjoyed, and couldn't bigger house or better car will be the magic silver bullet that will allow us to finally be content, but the reality is these things have little lasting impact on our happiness levels. Instead, being grateful for small things every day is a much better way to improve wellbeing.
43_______[A] Be silly
Have you ever noticed how much children laugh? If we adults could indulge in a bit of silliness and giggling, we would reduce the stress hormones in our bodies, increase good hormones like endorphins, improve blood flow to our hearts and ever have a greater chance of fighting off infection. All of which would, of course, have a positive effect on our happiness levels.
44______ [B] Have fun
The problem with being a grownup is that there's an awful lot of serious stuff to deal with-work, mortgage payments, figuring out what to cook for dinner. But as adults we also have the luxury of being able to control our own diaries and it's important that we schedule in time to enjoy the thing we love. Those things might be social, sporting, creative or completely random (dancing around the living room, anyone?)-it doesn't matter, so long as they're enjoyable, and not likely to have negative side effects, such as drinking too much alcohol or going on a wild spending spree if you're on a tight budget.
45______ [E] Don't overthink it
Having said all of the above, it's important to add that we shouldn't try too hard to be happy. Scientists tell us this can back fire and actually have a negative impact on our wellbeing. As the Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu is reported to have said: "Happiness is the absence of striving for happiness." And in that, once more, we need to look to the example of our children, to whom happiness is not a goal but a natural byproduct of the way they live.
Section III Translation
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
The supermarket is designed to lure customers into spending as much time as possible within its doors. The reason for this is simple: The longer you stay in the store, the more stuff you'll see, and the more stuff you see, the more you'll buy. And supermarkets contain a lot of stuff. The average supermarket, according to the Food Marketing Institute, carries some 44,000 different items, and many carry tens of thousands more. The sheer volume of available choice is enough to send shoppers into a state of information overload. According to brain-scan experiments, the demands of so much decision-making quickly become too much for us. After about 40 minutes of shopping, most people stop struggling to be rationally selective, and instead began shopping emotionally-which is the point at which we accumulate the 50 percent of stuff in our cart that we never intended buying.
Section IV Writing
Suppose you won a translation contest and your friend, Jack, wrote an email to congratulate you and ask for advice on translation. Write him a reply to
1) thank him, and
2) give you advice
You should write about 100 on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Your letter of congratulations was received. Thank you for your nice words on my winning the contest. In the letter, you asked me about the skills to do translation, so the following are my advice for you.
Firstly, you should analyze the sentence structure, thus catching the meaning of the sentence. Secondly, find the proper words to translate the meaning of the source language into the target language. Thirdly, revise your translation at least three times to check if there are any mistranslations or missed meanings.
I hope my advice helpful. Wish to see you soon.
Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
Portrayed in the above pie chart is a survey of college students' purposes of traveling. The number of students who take traveling as a chance to see beautiful scenes accounts for 37%, while students who would like to travel to relieve pressure from study take up 35 %.
There are several reasons behind the trend revealed in the above chart. To begin with, as the present society is filled with fierce competition, most college students nowadays are under great pressure to stand out among others or to lunch a decent job after graduation. Therefore, they tend to choose traveling as an outlet to relieve their stress. Secondly, with the fast advancement of the living standards of Chinese families, traveling is increasingly affordable to most college students. For this reason, students prefer to travel to see different views to enjoy themselves or to make some friends.
From my perspective, no matter what reason it is for, traveling is of great benefit for students to acquire a broader perspective of life. If time permits, we college students should go to see the outside world more often.