Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding "yes!"_____(1)helping you feel close and _____(2)to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a _____(3)of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you _____(4)getting sick this winter.
In a recent study _____(5)over 400 healthy adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs_____(6)the participants' susceptibility to developing the common cold after being_____(7)to the virus. People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come_____(8)with a cold, and the researchers_____(9)that the stress-reducing effects of hugging _____(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect. _____(11)among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe_____(12).
"Hugging protects people who are under stress from the _____(13)risk for colds that's usually _____(14)with stress," notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie, Hugging " is a marker of intimacy and help _____(15)the feeling that others are there to help_____(16)difficulty."
Some experts_____(17)the stress-reducing, health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called "the bonding hormone"_____(18)it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mothers and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain, and some of it is released into the bloodstream. But some of it _____(19)in the brain, where it _____(20)mood, behavior and physiology.
1. A.Besides B.Unlike C.Throughout D.Despite
2. A.equal B.restricted C.connected D.inferior
3. A.view B.host C.lesson D.choice
4. A.avoid B.forget C.recall D.keep
5. A.collecting B.affecting C.guiding D.involving
6. A.on B.in C.at D.of
7. A.devoted B.attracted C.lost D.exposed
8. A.along B.across C.down D.out
9. A.imagined B.denied C.doubted D.calculated
10.A.served B.restored C.explained D.required
11.A.Thus B.Still C.Rather D.Even
12.A.defeats B.symptoms C.errors D.tests
13.A.highlighted B.increased C.controlled D.minimized
14.A.presented B.equipped C.associated D.compared
15.A.assess B.generate C.moderate D.record
16. A.in the name of B.in the form of C.in the face of D.in the way of
17.A.attribute B.commit C.transfer D.return
18.A.unless B.because C.though D.until
19.A.remains B.emerges C.vanishes D.decreases
20.A.experiences B.combines C.justifies D.influences
【解析】根据本句句内逻辑关系，“it turns out that hugs…”说明拥抱还有其他结果。因此，前文的逻辑关系应该为“除此以外”，结合选项，A.Besides(除此之外)最为合适。
【解析】本题实为逻辑关系题。根据句子前后结构“helping you feel close and _____(2)”，我们可以判断，由于空格处与前面内容通过and连接，说明我们要选择一个单词与feel close同义，并且要与后面介词to 连用。因此，通过对于四个选项含义判断，C选项有“关联的”含义最为符合。
【解析】此题为固定搭配。“a host of”表示大量的。其他选项搭配不合理。
【解析】根据题干信息“a warm embrace might even help you _____(4)getting sick this winter.”中，出现“even”，表示“甚至”，说明此句话与上一句话存在递进的逻辑关系。上一句话的语义表示“拥抱可以带来大量的好处”，因此，这句话也应该表示拥抱的好处。根据四个选项含义，A.avoid(避免)B.forget(忘记)C.recall(回忆)D.keep(保持)，A选项“避免生病”最符合文意。
【解析】本题为固定搭配。根据句义“examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs_____(6)the participants'…”考查固定搭配“examined the effects…on sth”因此，本题正确选项为A。
【解析】根据句义“common cold after being_____(7)to the virus.”“通常感冒是在。。。细菌之后发生的。”结合选项含义A.devoted(致力于)B.attracted(吸引)C.lost(丢失)D.exposed(暴露于)，D选项“暴露在细菌中…”符合文意。
【解析】本题为固定搭配。A.come along with(和。。。相处的好)B.come across with(偿付)C.come down with(得病，感染)D.come out with(出版，提出)，结合语境，根据后面与cold(感冒)搭配，C选项“得感冒”搭配最为合理。
【解析】本题为动词与宾语从句搭配问题。根据原文“the researchers_____(9)that the stress-reducing effects of hugging _____(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”动作的主语是“研究人员”，连接后面的宾语从句“拥抱减小压力的作用”，并且有数据支撑。从选项含义A.imagined(想像)B.denied(否认)C.doubted(怀疑)D.calculated(计算，推测)来看，宾语从句部分应为研究人员计算推测出的结果。因此，选项D符合要求。
【解析】本题为动词含义考查。根据文章内容，“the stress-reducing effectsof hugging _____(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”本题同样考查研究人员做出的研究结果，因此，结合选项含义A.served(服务)B.restored(存储)C.explained(解释)D.required(要求)，C选项“解释”符合语境要求。
【解析】形容词与名词搭配问题。根据语境“the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe_____(12)”所选词要与severe构成合理搭配，再结合前文语境是关于对于拥抱实验的结果。因此，B.symptoms(症状)符合语境要求。正确选项为B。
【解析】本题为形容词修饰。根据原文"Hugging protects people who are under stress from the _____(13)risk for colds that's usually _____(14)with stress,"，需要选择一个形容词来修饰risk。在选项中，A.highlighted(突出的)B.increased(增加的)C.controlled(被控制的)D.minimized(最小的)，对比选项含义，B“增加的风险”更符合原文语境。
【解析】此题考查动宾搭配。根据原文“Hugging is a marker of intimacy and help _____(15)the feeling…”，需要选择一个动词能够和后文的“the feeling”搭配。分析选项含义：A.assess(评估)B.generate(产生)C.moderate(缓和)D.record(记录)，四个选项中，B“generate the feeling”产生感觉搭配最为合理。因此正选为B。
16A.in the name ofB.in the form ofC.in the face ofD.in the way of
【解析】此题为短语搭配题。分析选项含义A.in the name of(以…为名)B.in the form of(以…的形式)C.in the face of(面对…)D.in the way of(以…的方式)，结合文章语境，应为“面对困难”搭配最为合理。因此，正确选项为C。
【解析】此题为固定搭配题。即：attribute sth to sth .因此正确选项为A
【解析】此题为逻辑关系题。选项含义A.unless(除非)B.because(因为)C.though(虽然)D.until(直到。。。才)。结合原文语境，“often called "the bonding hormone"_____(18)it promotes attachment in relationships,”(经常被称之为“形成亲密关系的荷尔蒙”….它促进了关系的依赖。)从本句来看，前后文属于因果逻辑关系。因此正确选项为B
【解析】本题为动词辨析。选项含义为A.remains(仍然)B.emerges(出现)C.vanishes(消失)D.decreases(减少)结合语境信息“But some of it _____(19)in the brain, ”C和D选项跟文章含义相反。而B 选项只表示一种动作。A选项表示它仍然在大脑里存在，最符合文章要求，因此正确选项为A。
where it _____(20)mood, behavior and physiology.
【解析】本题为动词辨析。选项含义为A.experiences(经历)B.combines(结合)C.justifies(替某人辩护，证明合理)D.influences(影响)。根据原文语境，“where it _____(20)mood, behavior and physiology.”能够搭配后面并列的三个宾语“情绪、行为、和生理”，只有D“影响”因此正确选项为D。
First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.
Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans' economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.
Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they tried. Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago's O'Hare International. It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious.
Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.
There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involved. TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.
It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck's fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.
The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.
21. The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804 is mentioned to
[A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks.
[B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide.
[C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. airports.
[D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection.
22. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports?
[A] New restrictions on carry-on bags.
[B] The declining efficiency of the TSA.
[C] An increase in the number of travellers.
[D] Frequent unexpected secret checks.
23. The word “expedited” (Liner 4, Para. 5) is closet in meaning to
24. One problem with the PreCheck program is
[A] a dramatic reduction of its scale.
[B] its wrongly-directed implementation.
[C] the government’s reluctance to back it.
[D] an unreasonable price for enrollment.
25. Which of the following would be the best for the text?
[A] Less Screening for More Safety
[B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution
[C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines
[D] Underused PreCheck Lanes
21. 答案【A】explain American’s tolerance of current security checks.
解析：本题目为例证题，考察论点与论据。根据题干关键词the crash of Egypt Air Flight 804定位到第二段第二句。例证题中的例子为论据，所要找的答案为论点，而论点在论据之前，因此该题目的答案是第二段的第一句话。二段首句说的是美国人愿意忍受长时间的安全检查。正确答案A的American’s tolerance是原文Americans are willing to tolerate的原词复现，current security checks是原文的time-consuming security 的同义转化。干扰项B的urgency to strengthen security worldwide，原文未提及worldwide，属于扩大范围;选项C的major U.S. major airports属于具体信息的干扰;选项D的privacy 隐私并未提及，是常识性干扰。
22. 答案【C】An increase in the number of travelers.
解析：本题目为原因细节题。根据题干中的long waits at major airports定位到原文第三段的第二句，原文的resulted in 与题干中的contributed to是同义转化，所以定位内容就是提升的安全措施以及航空旅游的增加。正确答案C的an increase in the number of travelers 是原文a rise in airline travel的同义替换。干扰项A的carry-on bags是在第四段的最后一句出现的，非定位句内容;选项B的TSA efficiency也出现在第四段;选项D的unexpected secret checks未提及。
解析：本题目为词义句意题，考察上下文逻辑关系。根据题干，定位到第5段第3句，“Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes”，结合下一句中的这样会saving time for everyone involved，即可以节省时间的安检，与选项对应就是答案D faster更快。干扰项A更安静，选项B更便宜，选项C更广泛，都无关，属于常识性干扰。
24. 答案【D】an unreasonable price for enrollment.
解析：本题目为具体细节题。根据题干关键词problem with the PreCheck program定位到倒数第二段的第二句话 this price tag has been the PreCheck’s fatal flaw.本句中的代词this代词指代本段第一句话，说的是Passengers必须每五年pay 85美元来做background checks。正确答案D中的unreasonable price 是原文的85美元，enrollment就是原文的process background checks。干扰项A其规模的极具下滑未提及，选项C其错误的执行属于过度推理，选项C政府不愿意支持是对原文的曲解。
25. 答案【C】Getting Stuck in Security Lines
“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos.
At issue is the TMT's planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko, that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world's most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea's peak rises above the bulk of our planet's dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.
Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.
Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea's fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands' inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.
Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii's shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.
The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.
26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates
[A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.
[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
[C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.
[D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.
27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to
[A] its geographical features.
[B] its protective surroundings.
[C] its religious implications.
[D] its existing infrastructure.
28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because
[A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.
[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.
[C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.
[D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.
29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy
[A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.
[B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.
[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
[D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.
30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of
[A] severe criticism.
[B] passive acceptance.
[C] slight hesitancy.
[D] full approval.
26. 答案【B】the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
解析：本题目为具体细节题。根据题干中的关键词Queen Liliuokalani的remark定位到第一段的第一句，所indicate的内容是在第一段的第二句话，意思是观星者是在Hawaiian社会中最受尊重的成员。正确选项B的the importance of astronomy是原文star watchers were among the most esteemed members的总结概括，in ancient Hawaiian society是原文的原词出现。干扰项A的historical role属于原文信息的曲解，选项C的regrettable decline未提及，过度推理，选项D不是in her time，是她评论ancient的观星者。
27. 答案【A】its geographical features.
解析：本题目为具体细节题。根据题干中的大写字母Mauna Kea，以及关键词ideal astronomical site定位到第二段But后面的内容。But后面说Mauna Kea是世界上最有力量的望远镜home。本题目问的是原因，定位到本段最后一句，这里提到Mauna Kea的顶峰高于大部分的浓密大气层。选项A中的geographical features就是地质特色的意思，属于同义替换。干扰项B的受保护的周边环境未提及，是常识性干扰;选项C的宗教暗示根据本段首句worship进行干扰，不在定位句里;选项D现有的基础设施未提及。
28. 答案【B】it reminds them of a humiliating history.
解析：本题目属于原因细节题。根据题干关键词the construction of the TMT以及opposed by some locals定位到第四段第二句，这里提到a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation，对曾经主权国家遭占领的痛苦提醒。选项B中的remind 是原文的原词复现，a humiliating history(令人耻辱的历史)是对the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation 的同义转化及总结概括。
29. 答案【C】may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
解析：本题目属于细节推断题。根据题干定位到第5段，关键词progress in today’s astronomy再第五段中没有。此种情况下，考虑段落中心，即本段的段首，段尾及转这句。先看首句无答案，看本段尾句提到，或许那就是我们探索星际空间的原因，好像会回答有关我们自己及我们真正祖先的最原始回答。选项C首先may是对原文as if的解读，uncover 同义替换answer，the origin of Hawaiian culture是原文ourselves and our true ancestral homes的同义转化。干扰项A的dreams本段中没有，干扰项B的Hawaiian culture本段有提及，但未指出across the world，干扰项D的soften hostility属于过度推断。
30. 答案【D】full approval
解析：第一段第二句 Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today.意思是，可悲的是，夏威夷现在的天文学不太妙。所以，对于现在夏威夷天文学不太妙的处境，作者用了一个sadly来形容，明明白白地表达了他的蓝瘦香菇。而夏威夷现在不太妙的处境具体指什么?在下一句清楚地说明了Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos意思是我们要搞个巨牛的望远镜，你们居然不同意!所以两句结合一块，作者的态度就明白了，他是支持建望远镜的。在最后一段的最后一句里也有作者态度的线索 There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.意思是说有人跑到你们那儿去，接受你们的文化遗产，去看星星看月亮，你们为毛不欢迎?咳咳，正经点儿说，就是用了no reason和cannot双重否定既强调又强调，还带点儿不可置信地赶脚说夏威夷人应该欢迎每一个到他们那儿去研究天文，并且欣赏他们的文化遗产cultural heritage的每一个人everyone。具体到这篇文章，他们的文化遗产在第五段和第一段都有说，就是天文研究，而每一个人当然应该包括这些想建天文望远镜的人。所以作者的态度旗帜鲜明，就是全力支持。所以正确答案是D。
Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country's GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.
The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?
A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.
While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes. Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline. Yet this isn’t the case with all countries. Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and environment.
This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different.
So what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough. It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person's sense of well-being.
The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth. But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.
31. Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he
[A]praised the UK for its GDP.
[B]identified GDP with happiness.
[C]misinterpreted the role of GDP.
[D]had a low opinion of GDP.
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that
[A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern.
[B]the UK will contribute less to the world economy.
[C]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK.
[D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP.
33. Which of the following is true about the recent annual study?
[A]It excludes GDP as an indicator.
[B]It is sponsored by 163 countries.
[C]Its criteria are questionable.
[D]Its results are enlightening.
34. In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that
[A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom.
[B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline.
[C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP.
[D]it requires caution to handle economic issues.
35. Which of the following is the best for the text?
[A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson
[B]GDP figures, a Window on Global Economic Health
[C] Robert F. Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP
[D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being
31. 答案【D】had a low opinion of GDP.
解析：题目问的是Robert被引用是因为什么。根据题目中的人名定位到第一段第一句话Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country's GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.”这句话是说这个人认为一个国家的GDP可以衡量所有东西，除了让生活有意义的事。这个观点摆明了Robert对GDP持不欣赏的态度。D选项 a low opinion不高的评价，显然是对原文的概括性描述，因此选D。
32. 答案【C】GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK.
解析：题目明确说了从第二段中找答案。A选项中的economic pattern在原文中没有直接的表达，但在二段末句···people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?中，原文有提到人们投票脱欧，尽管有很多人警告他们这样做可能会对国家经济前景有影响。这说明英国人不怕改变现有经济状况，因此与A中的reluctant不情愿不相符。B选项中英国对世界经济的贡献问题，在第二段中完全没提，只有the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world英国GDP让西方世界嫉妒的表述。C选项说GDP用来衡量幸福的作用以及被英国人普遍否定了。原文中第二段第二句说it is a flawed concept，认为GDP是有问题的，第三句紧接着说It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do表面GDP其实忽视了很多关键的东西，并不能衡量幸福。第四句、第五句拿UK来举例，说英国GDP很好，但是人们却要脱欧来改变现状，暗示人们的生活并不好。整段说明了英国人并不认为他们的高GDP给她们带来了好的生活，与C选项正好形成正话反说，为正确选项。D选项policymakers在第二段第一句出现，并不存在所谓英国的policymakers，更没有谈过其是否关注GDP。
33. 答案【D】Its results are enlightening.
解析：这题根据题干中的recent annual study定位到第三段第一句A recent annual study ...and ...sheds some light on that question。这句话中的shed light on 短语就是照亮，阐释的意思，跟D选项中的enlighten启发是同义转换，因此为正确答案。
34.答案【C】it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP.
解析 ：从题目可知答案来自于最后两段。第六段第一句···, as a measure, it is no longer enough说明GDP不靠谱，第二句It does not include important factors···that contribute to a person's sense of well-being说明GDP没有包含所有个人幸福的要素。最后一段最后一句But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.也明确说了制定政策的人要关注提高福利，而不是简单关注GDP数字。这些句子都与C选项factors beyond GDP相符。
35. 答案【A】High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson
解析：第一段第一句就引用名人名言，说GDP是不靠谱的，第二句就拿英国脱欧举例，说it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to，表明英国脱欧证明他说得有道理，咱们要好好听听。第二段继续说英国GDP高，但是人们要搞事——脱欧，说明人们日子不好过。第三段，第四段开始分析为啥英国人不乖乖听话过日子，原来是福利在后退but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline。第五段直接说富裕国家要引以为戒：This is a lesson that rich countries can learn。所以整篇文章的主题就是GDP不靠谱，福利不给力不行，英国脱欧是例证。A选项正好包括了这三个要素，High GDP, Inadequate Well-being和a UK lesson因此选A。
In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari Automobile from a company seeking access to government.
The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trail failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.
Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.
The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”
The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution of bribery. “The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”
But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.
Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society – that all are equal in treatment by government- is undermined. Good government rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.
The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.
36. The underlined sentence(Para.1) most probably shows that the court
[A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties.
[B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell.
[C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.
[D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.
37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves
[A] concrete returns for gift-givers.
[B] sizable gains in the form of gifts.
[C] leaking secrets intentionally.
[D] breaking contracts officially.
38. The court’s ruling is d on the assumption that public officials are
[A] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.
[B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues.
[C] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.
[D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.
39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to
[A] awaken the conscience of officials.
[B] guarantee fair play in official access.
[C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying.
[D] inspire hopes in average people.
40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is
36. 答案【C】was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.
解析：根据题干中的关键词The underlined sentence (para. 1)，可以快速的回到原文精确定位到第一段的划线句子，But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari Automobile from a company seeking access to government. 联系文章第一句话，虽然最高法院没有判定Robert McDonnell受贿罪，但是 holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, 即，在道德上却对他的行为嗤之以鼻。由此可以锁定C选项中的 was contemptuous of 法院其实非常轻视Robert McDonnell的行为。文章的D选项中出现 ethics，原文中相同的词，可能会混淆考生的思维，但是，此句话说的是拒绝从道德的标准评论Robert McDonnell的行为。
37. 答案【B】sizable gains in the form of gifts.
解析：根据题干中给出的信息，可知这一题是对文章第四段理解，由第四段推理出正确答案。从第四段But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”可以知道，对腐败的定义是，只有受贿者给予了行贿者实际的好处，例如 a contract or regulation, 如果提供的不是具体的好处，仅仅只是：arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event, 那么这种行为就不是受贿。由此可以得出答案为A.
38. 答案【A】allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.
解析：根据题干中的关键词The court’s ruling is don the assumption可以锁定文章的第五段，“The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”可以知道，法院的裁定是建立听取其选民的意见，按照他们的利益行事。所以原文中的constituents对应A选项的 supporters，支持者。所以答案选择A
39. 答案【B】guarantee fair play in official access.
解析：根据题干中的关键词Well-enforced laws in government transparency可以锁定文章的第六段This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.但是从这句话中找不到所需的信息，从this type of可以知道这句话与前面的句子联系紧密，因而可以追溯到这一段的第一句话，But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access togovernment. 执法力度需要加强市民及其当选代表，而不是法院获得接近政府的平等的机会。equality与B选项的fair play相对应，因此选B.
解析：本题考察的是态度题，从文中最后一句话: The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.可以看出作者认为法院的裁定是进步的： a step forward，，因此可以看出作者对此的态度是supportive. sarcastic: 尖酸的，挖苦的;tolerant：宽容的，容忍的;skeptical：怀疑的。
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered box. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A]The first published sketch, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" brought tears toDickens's eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine. From then on his sketches ,which appeared under the pen name "Boz" in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation.
[B]The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens's fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, became a national figure.
[C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the ten-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour's pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a drawing Dickens felt was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the change, went into his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837, and was first published in book form in 1837.
[D]Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. A moralist, satirist, and social reformer. Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society.
[E]Soon after his father's release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter's eye for transcribing the life around him especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines.
[F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England's southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British navy pay office -a respectable position, but wish little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dicken's mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dicken's birth, his mother's father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family's increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren's Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as "the young gentleman." His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father's imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed Dicken's greatest wound and became his deepest secret. He could not confide them even to his wife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction.
[G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, e traces an orphan's progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dichens' as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters.
D → 41. → 42. → 43. → 44. → B →45.
41. [F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth
42. [E] Soon after his father's release from prison
43. [A]The first published sketch
44. [C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared
45. [G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world
The growth of the use of English as the world`s primary language for international communication has obviously been continuing for several decades.
(46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.
Complex international, economic, technological and culture change could start to diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests which enjoy advantage from the breath of English usage would consequently face new pressures. Those realistic possibilities are highlighted in the study presented by David Graddol
(47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.
David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleakeconomic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations. Alongside that,(48)many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages.
If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish ,Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other language such as Japanese, French and German, spreads.
(49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors. The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly &1.3 billion for the UK in invisible exports and our other education related explores earn up to &10 billion a year more. As the international education market expands, the recent slowdown in the number of international students studying in the main English-speaking countries is likely to continue, especially if there are no effective strategic policies to prevent such slippage.
The anticipation of possible shifts in demand provided by this study is significant:(50) It gives a basis to all organization which seek to promote the learning and very different operating environment. That is a necessary and practical approach. In this as in much else, those who wish to influence the future must prepare for it.
(46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.
句子解析：本句很简单，主句是there be 结构，主句前是让步状语，signs后面是that引导的同位语从句，对signs进行进一步的补充说明。同位语从句中是主谓结构，the global predominance of the language 是主语，may fade 是谓语，within结构是时间状语。expands的词义不应该选择常用的“扩展”意思，而应该结合前面和它搭配的number，而选择“增加”的意思。
(47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.
句子解析：此句为复合句，who之前是主句，结构是主谓宾，His analysis是主语，he指代的是前面的大卫，end是核心谓语动词，any self-contentedness是宾语，among those是状语，who引导定语从句修饰those，定语从句中who做主语，believe是谓语，that引导宾语从句做believe的宾语，宾语从句中global position of English是主语，后面是系表结构，that引导结果状语从句，结果状从中是主谓宾结构。词汇部分，self-contentedness可能是难点，意思是“自满，自大”，因为contend是满意的意思，additional在考研英语翻译中常用的译法是“新的，另外的”，此处翻译可采用词性转换。还有who引导的定语从句的处理方法，可以重复先行词“那些人”，采用后置法。
(48)many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages.
句子解析：此句是but连接的并列复合句，前半句是主谓宾加状语的结构，很简单，后半句也是主谓宾结构，British schoolchildren and students是主语，do not appear to be gaining是复合谓语，greater encouragement是宾语，to achieve fluency in other languages是不定式短语做encouragement的后置定语。Curriculum是课程的意思，fluency是流利，流畅的意思。
(49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors.
句子解析：此句是简单句，修饰成分较多，稍有些复杂，The changes是主语，identified by David Graddol是过去分词短语做后置定语修饰changes，identified可以理解为“发现，指出”， present是谓语动词， 是“体现，表现”的意思，clear and major challenges是宾语，to UK`s providers of English language teaching是介词短语做后置定语修饰challenges，providers 本意是供应商，此处可以理解为“英语教学工作者”，to people of other countries and to broadereducation business sectors.是后置定语修饰English language teaching。
50. It gives a basis to all organizations which seek to promote the learning and use of English, a basis for planning to meet the possibilities of what could be a very different operating environment.
句子解析：主句是主谓宾加状语结构，it是代词指代，指代前文的study，basis应该理解为“依据”，which引导定语从句修饰organizations，翻译时可以采用前置法，定语从句中which做主语，seek to promote是谓语动词，the learning and use of English是宾语，a basis是前面主句宾语basis的同位语，for planning to meet the possibilities介词短语做后置定语修饰basis，of what could be a very different operating environment介词短语做后置定语修饰possibilities。
Section Ⅳ Writing
51.【题干】direction: You are to write an email to James Cook, a newly-arrived Australia professor, recommending some tourist attractions in your city .Please give reason for your recommendation.
You should write nearly on the answer sheet.
Dot not sign your own name at the end of the email .use "Li Ming" instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Dear Prof. James Cook,
Welcome to China. I know you love traveling, so I’m writing this letter to recommend to you one of my favorite scenic spot—Harbin, which is an old northern city of China.
I think you must like it for the reasons as follows. To begin with, there are an amount of beautiful scenic spots, such as the Ice and Snow Kingdom in winter, the Sun island, the Central Street and so on. In addition, you could taste a great number of snacks on the average street. Last but not least, the people of Harbin are overwhelmingly hospitable and enthusiastic, which is famous all over China.
Owing to the reasons discussed above, I won’t hesitate to recommend this scenic spot to you. I am sure you will enjoy it. Best wishes for you!
今年英语一的小作文不出预料，再一次考查到了推荐信。在英语一的考试当中，推荐信已经考查过两年了。例如我们英语一在2011年就考查过向你的朋友推荐一部电影。具体题目要求是Write a letter to a friend of yours to1) recommend one of your favorite movies and;2) give reasons for your recommendation. 2015年考察的是you are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.You should state reasons for your recommendation. 而今年的作文题目要求给新来的澳大利亚国籍教授James Cook介绍你城市的tourist attraction。因此，考生不用惊慌只要把2011年或2015年的小作文，主要是推荐原因部分，稍作修改即可成文。这就启发我们2018届的同学们要高度重视历年真题，因为考过的话题或是书信类型会反复考查。
称呼： Dear Prof. James Cook, 注意称呼中，Prof后面的句点不能丢，称呼最后的逗号号不可丢，也不能写成冒号。当然如果称呼不写Prof. 写成Mr. James Cook 也是可以的。
第一段：写作内容需涵盖两点：1：欢迎Cook 教授来中国;2：写信目的，表明推荐。 用到了这样的表达Welcome to China. I know you love traveling, so I’m writing this letter to recommend to you one of my favorite scenic spot- Harbin, which is an old northern city of China.
第二段： 写作内容为推荐原因。可以从三个角度来考虑：美景、美食和热情的人们。用到了这样的表达：I think you must like it for the reasons as follows. To begin with, there are an amount of beautiful scenic spots, such as the Ice and Snow Kingdom in winter, the Sun island, the Central Street and so on. In addition, you could taste a great number of snacks on the average street. Last but not least, the people of Harbin are overwhelmingly hospitable and enthusiastic, which is famous all over China.
第三段：再次强调写信目的。Owing to the reasons discussed above, I won’t hesitate to recommend this scenic spot to you. I am sure you will enjoy it. 最后，表达祝福 Best wishes for you!
落款： Yours sincerely, 特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢;
签名： Li Ming特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。 落款和前面左、右对齐都可
52.【题干】Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should
1) describe the pictures briefly.
2) interrupt the meaning, and
3) give your comments
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET (20 points)
As is symbolically mirrored in the caricatures, there emerge two circumstances, carrying sharp contrast implications. In the first cartoon, a fashionable boy, lying in his sling chair comfortably, is looking at his whole shelf of books and saying, “I possess a multitude of books”. On the contrary, the second portrayal demonstrates an industrious student who is sitting in front of the desk and makes a realistic plan that he would like to finish reading 20 books in total within a year.
The author of the cartoon invites us to focus on a truth that endless plans paralyze actions. There are simply no great success and achievements in the world that are not achieved through hard work and diligence. Similarly, a dream can be realized when you decide to work for it and persist continuously. Everyone desires to succeed, but not all his dreams can come true until he works hard to implement his plans. People give up their dreams for this or that reason. Those whose dreams become true have at least one thing in common, that is, they always hold fast to their dreams and always keep their feet on the ground. Just around us, for instance, the athletes who gain the gold medals, the artists who are prevalent with the public, and even the students who enter the university after years of hard study and preparation, are all dream-holders.
Accordingly, to succeed, we need to spare no efforts and hold fast to your dreams just as our nation sticks to our Chinese Dream. The path to dreams may not be smooth and wide, and even some sacrifices are needed, but hold on to the end, you will find there is no greater happiness than making your dream come true.
我们简单来看看如何审这两副图，左边的图片中，一个学生坐在躺椅里悠哉悠哉，看着自己有许多书却没说读上哪怕一本;右边的图片中，一位勤奋的学生拿着一本书仔细读着，并且很现实地计划着一年争取读完20本书。图表描述参考如下：As is symbolically mirrored in the caricatures, there emerge two circumstances, carrying sharp contrast implications. In the first cartoon, a fashionable boy , lying in his sling chair comfortably, is looking at his whole shelf of books and says, “I possess a multitude of books”. On the contrary, the second portrayal demonstrates an industrious student who is sitting in front of the desk and makes a realistic plan that he would like to finish reading 20 books in total within a year.
第二段可以从两方面来论证，一方面强调如果只有想法而不行动是不利于理想的实现，另一方面从正面论证脚踏实地一步一步完成理想的道理。参考如下：The author of the cartoon invites us to focus on a truth that endless plans paralyze actions. There are simply no great success and achievements in the world that are not achieved through hard work and diligence. Similarly, a dream can be realized when you decide to work for it and persist continuously. Everyone desires to succeed, but not all his dreams can come true until he works hard to implement his plans. People give up their dreams for this or that reason. Those whose dreams become true have at least one thing in common, that is, they always hold fast to their dreams and always keep their feet on the ground. Just around us, for instance, the athletes who gain the gold medals, the artists who are prevalent with the public, and even the students who enter the university after years of hard study and preparation, are all dream-holders。.
第三段给出结论，简单提两条建议即可。比如：Accordingly, to succeed, we need to spare no efforts and hold fast to your dreams just as our nation sticks to our Chinese Dream. The path to dreams may not be smooth and wide, and even some sacrifices are needed, but hold on to the end,you will find there is no greater happiness than making your dream come true.